Impact of tree coppicing on tree-crop competition in parkland and alley farming systems in semiarid Burkina Faso. The species can tolerate a wide range of climates and soil types. Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Centre. In: Flora of China. by Randall, R. P. ]. > 0°C, dry winters), Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, Warm average temp. Lowry J B, Prinsen J H, Burrows D M, 1994. Young plantations in India may suffer serious defoliation by Phyllosticta albizinae (Bakshi, 1976). The seeds are relatively large. Seeds are brown, flat, orbicular or elliptic, 8-10 x 6-7 mm, transversely placed with 3-12 in each pod. Siris Tree or Woman?s Tongue Tree (Albizia lebbeck) belongs in the Fabaceae family that grows up to 15-30 m in height and 50 cm to 300 cm in trunk diameter. United States Node of the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Net (IABIN). Online Database. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. the Cook pastoral district) (Doran and Turnbull, 1997; Weeds of Australia, 2016). Indian Forester, 120(3):225-235, Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S, eds, 1998. Trees for Darwin and northern Australia. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Early nitrogen fixation and utilization in Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala, and Gliricidia sepium using nitrogen (,,,,,,,,, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Fertilizer use efficiency of different tree species for higher biomass production. lebbeck is regarded as a valued forage for ruminants (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992). A fast growing, large tree, tolerant of poor soils with a shallow, wide root system, which can fail in storms. Indian Forester, 118(4):265-270; 8 ref, PROTA, 2016. ], Shaikh MHA, 1992. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Nelson, G, 1994. Young leaves taste bitter and intake may be limited when offered as the whole diet. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institute.1192 pp. Diseases of forest trees widely planted as exotics in the tropics and southern hemisphere. Indian Journal of Forestry, 15(3):283-284, Krauss U, 2012. Advances in Horticulture and Forestry, 4: 181-189, Shyam Lal, Lal S, 1994. Within its native range, A. lebbeck is often found on riverbanks and in savannas, forests and bushy areas (PIER, 2016). Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Burg WJ van der, Freitas J de, Debrot AO, Lotz LAP, 2012. Ahmed SI, Kumar S, Gaur M, 1995. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria., Seliskar CE, 1964. Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016), Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez (2015), Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo Rodríguez, 2015, Debris and waste associated with human activities, Linum carteri (Carter's small-flowered flax), US Fish and Wildlife Service, The vegetation of the Kimberley area. A. lebbeck fixes nitrogen after nodulating with a range of Rhizobium strains in many tropical soils, and does so at a rate that makes it an attractive hedgerow species for use in alley cropping (Kadiata and Mulongoy, 1995; Kadiata et al., 1996). Morton J, 1983. Years 1999-2015. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. 161 Invasive Alien Species present in Saint Lucia and their current status. Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit, with Laysan albatross chicks (Phoebastria immutabilis). Albizia is very similar to Acacia. Forest Ecology and Management, 80(1-3):209-223; 42 ref, Devarnavadagi SB, Murthy BG, 1995. Flora of the Kimberley region. Insect Environment, 1(1):8-9, Tilander Y, 1993. In Tanzania, ripe pods can be found in July-December with a peak in August-October (PROTA, 2016). Flora of Panama (WFO). Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Centre ICRAF. Forest pathology: principles and practice in forestry. Green leaves, fallen flowers and dry leaves are palatable. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition.,, Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Family: Fabaceae Habit: Deciduous, unarmed tree to 20 m (65 ft) tall, with a rounded, spreading crown and pale bark. Early growth and yield of Albizia lebbeck at a coastal site in Puerto Rico. Albizia lebbeck - a promising forage tree for semiarid regions. in arid India. Its brittleness makes this tree a poor choice for planting around buildings, sidewalks, and roads. Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Hanelt P, Buttner R, Mansfeld R, 2001. Midway Mall Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. However, seeds can be stored for up to 5 years in sealed containers at room temperature with only moderate reduction in percentage viability. In some locations, some species are considered weeds.. USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Honolulu, Hawai'i, USA, Sreemannarayana B, Rao LGG, Joseph B, 1994. It is often introduced as a nitrogen-fixing species for reforestation and improvement of degraded sites (Parrotta, 2002). In the West Indies and certain parts of South America this tree is known as a 'Shak Shak Tree' because of the sound the seeds make in the pod. Catalogue of the vascular plants of the department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Lowry, J.B. & Seebeck, J. Verdcourt B, 1979. The species is reportedly one of the 100 most serious invasive species, and a transformer species, in Cuba. Although the species has a very wide natural distribution and in that sense is not endangered, the blurring of boundaries between indigenous populations and those established from exotic germplasm is a conservation issue. (col.); 146 ref. Flowers are a rich source of light-coloured honey (Gupta, 1993). Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); seedpod and seeds. 2nd ed. Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Proceedings of the IUFRO Workshop-Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations. It is also invasive in parts of Africa. Outside of Australia, it grows well on fertile, well-drained loamy soils but poorly on heavy cracking clays, and can tolerate moderately alkaline, saline and sodic (pH<9, ESP<35, ECe<4 dS/m) and lateric soils (Tomar and Yadav, 1982; Hocking, 1993; MacDicken, 1994; Singh, 1994; Parrotta, 2010; PIER, 2016). Indian Journal of Forestry, 5(4):290-297; 18 ref, Tripathi RM, Sen PC, Das PK, 1979. Langeland KA, Craddock Burks K, 1998. Siris Tree (Woman's Tongue) Albizia lebbeck. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading., India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. (1992). A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. The reddish gum (Martinez et al., 1995) is a substitute for gum arabic. The wood is also suitable for pulping for writing and printing paper (Kalra, 1990), and it is an excellent fuelwood and charcoal species.A. Lista preliminar de plantas invasoras para Puerto Rico, FLEPPC, 2015. Leguminosae. Invasive plant species. Blue wood windows open isolated. pp. Even where it is not native, some indigenous herbivores are liable to utilize lebbeck as a food resource. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation., xv + 562 pp. Apart from these reports, there is little information on its genetic variability and there are apparently no other programmes systematically screening provenances or undertaking selection and breeding activities. Version 4. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 6: 47-49; 4 ref. The entire inflorescence is 'fluffy' in appearance, 60 mm in diameter, yellow-green with a pleasant fragrance. This species is thought to occur naturally in coastal forests, monsoonal vine thickets, savannah woodlands and riparian areas in some parts of northern Australia, though it may be a relatively recent introduction to these regions. Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); flowers and leaves. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. 539 pp. Ecological approach to waste land development. Germination is epigeal, and generally occurs between 4 to 20 days after sowing, with peak germination at 12 to 18 days (Parrotta, 1988). It can be worked to a good surface that polishes well. (This is in contrast with Afzelia , where the wood is fluorescent much less consistently and not as strongly.) Overview Information Albizia is an herb that was originally grown in southern and eastern Asia. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 6:43-44, Henderson L, 2001. Little EL, Wadsworth FH, 1964. Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. Related species are A. canescens and A. procera., PIER, 2016. Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture., 292-308; 6 pp. The flowers of A. lebbeck are hermaphroditic, fragrant, white to greenish-yellow and borne in rounded, axillary clusters, 2-3.8 cm in diameter at the ends of lateral stalks. A. lebbeck is used in alley farming systems in Africa and India (e.g. A global compendium of weeds, (Ed.2) [ed. New Delhi India, 400 pp, Bandara PDMGD, 1987. on degraded lands. Due to its extensive, shallow root system, A. lebbeck is a good soil binder and is recommended for soil conservation and erosion control (e.g. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Morgantown, WV: Commune-Tech Associates. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Timber trees: lesser-known timbers. [5], Even where it is not native, some indigenous herbivores are liable to utilize lebbeck as a food resource. National Geographic 28,178,856 views Wallingford, UK: + 601 pp., Cook BG, Pengelly BC, Brown SD, Donnelly JL, Eagles DA, Franco MA, Hanson J, Mullen BF, Partridge IJ, Peters M, Schultze-Kraft R, 2005. Notes: Albizia stands as one of the few genera with a wide distribution spanning different continents where the heartwood of all species consistently fluoresces under blacklight. Under suitable environmental conditions, A. lebbeck forms dense thickets that outcompete native plant species by inhibiting the germination and establishment of seedlings, with a consequent reduction in native species diversity (PIER, 2016). Flora of China. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Soil types include laterite and shallow sandy soils. Albizia lebbeck is a perennial, deciduous tree, native to Asia and introduced to tropical regions across the world as a shelter tree for cash crops, for erosion control, as a forage crop and as a source of hardwood. Online database. A. lebbeck has a growth pattern strongly dependent on seasonal changes (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992). This listing is for a young sapling of the Golden Silk tree, Albizia Lebbeck, aka the lebbeck tree, acacia tree, powder puff tree or womans tongue tree. By 1933, it was recognized as invading tropical hammocks in the Florida Keys. ), Schetini de Azevedo, Cristiano; Penha Tinoco, Herlandes; Bosco Ferraz, João & Young, Robert John,, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 November 2020, at 07:21. Department of Primary Industries, Indooroopilly, Queensland, Faria MP de, Siqueira JO, Vale FR do, Curi N, 1995. Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); fruiting habit. The Malesian species of Acacia and Albizia (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae). A. lebbeck is a popular species that has been intentionally introduced beyond its native range in Asia, Africa and America., Lindsay KC, Bacle JP, Thomas C, Pearson M, 2009. Several species are grown as In South Africa, the species was listed as a Category 1 invasive alien species, meaning it ‘displaces indigenous plants/ serious invader of native ecosystems’ (MacDonald et al, 2003). Kokko (siris). Volume 2. It is multi-stemmed when grown in the open but capable of producing a single straight stem when grown in plantations (Lowry et al., 1994). Indian Forester, 116(12):974-976; 2 ref, Keating WG, Bolza E, 1982. Silviculture of genus Albizia and species. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. Online database. In Australia, the mean maximum of the hottest month is 30-35°C and the mean minimum of the coolest month is 19-31°C (Doran and Turnbull, 1997). CSIRO, Australia, I3N-Brasil, 2016. Forest nursery diseases and their management. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. Composition and properties of Albizia lebbeck gum exudate. Parrotta JA, 2002. 11. It is moderately heavy and hard, strong and fairly durable, kiln-seasons well and works and polishes easily, but filler is required. Species Overview. A. lebbeck also produces root suckers and once established, it forms dense stands (PIER, 2016). 98. This species is known to be intolerant of continuous grazing by cattle (Lowry et al., 1994). Federation of St Kitts and Nevis., Little EL Jr, 1983. High seedling mortality may be caused by animal browsing and trampling (Hocking, 1993). Diseases of forest trees widely planted as exotics in the tropics and southern hemisphere. In Puerto Rico, seedlings raised in plastic sleeves under light shade reached 20 to 30 cm height in 3 months (Parrotta, 1988). Albizia trees are known as being one of the fastest-growing trees. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1: 397-406, Troup RS, Joshi HB, 1983. Explanatory notes to Sheet 1. University of Florida Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. On lateritic plateaux, A. lebbeck grows with Hakea arborescens and Grevillea mimosoides in the shrub layer beneath low woodland and low open-forest. There are also natural populations in Australia occurring in the Kimberley region of Western Australia, the extreme north of the Northern Territory and far northern Queensland (i.e. [9], The taxonomic history of A. lebbeck is somewhat convoluted. Site suitability and tolerance limits of trees, shrubs and grasses on sodic soils of Ganga-Yamuna Doab. 1), 22-96. Lebbek (Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.) Agroforestree database: a tree species reference and selection guide version 4.0. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000, Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA, Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA, Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 31(2):125-129; 15 ref, Gibson IAS, 1975. Products from the tree legume Albizia lebbeck as supplements for sheep in the dry tropics. Virus and viruslike disorders of forest trees. Effect of scarification treatments on the germination of Leucaena leucocephala, Albizia lebbeck and Samanea saman [Albizia saman]. gra. The species is known to be aggressive in Florida, where it has been reported invading conservation areas in southern and central Florida, as well as parts of coastal and sub-coastal Queensland, Australia, where it poses an environmental threat to native vegetation (FLEPPC, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2016). The species has sometimes been spelt in the literature as 'lebbek'. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. London, UK; Chapman & Hall Ltd, xiv + 241 pp, Demel Teketay, 1996. Midway Mall Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. The glabrous glands are raised, elliptic to circular, on the upper side of the stalk, close to the base and between most pairs of leaflets (Hyland and Whiffin, 1993). Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. 279 p, Cook BG, Pengelly BC, Brown SD, Donnelly JL, Eagles DA, Franco MA, Hanson J, Mullen BF, Partridge IJ, Peters M, Schultze-Kraft R, 2005. II, Debra Dun, India: International Book Distributors, 91-118, Sharma K, Mishra VK, 1995. This species is not Rhizobium specific and naturalized forms will produce nodules easily (Lowry et al., 1994). Trees and shrubs of the Sahel, their characteristics and uses. It is also in semi-deciduous microphyll vine thickets on scree slopes of quartz sandstone mountains (Miles et al., 1975), with a closed canopy of emergent trees 9-15 m tall. By 1990, the species was reported as a fast-growing colonizer of disturbed areas in Florida (Nelson, 1994; Langeland and Craddock Burks, 1998; Langeland et al., 2009), and since 1999 it has been listed as a Category I invasive species in Florida (FLEPPC, 2015)., Randall R P, 2012. It has also been used in the treatment of respiratory afflictions like bronchial asthma. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Compendium record. The leaves are bipinnate, 7.5–15 cm long, with one to four pairs of pinnae, each pinna with 6–18 leaflets. (1994) highlighted the fact that in northern Australia the species, as well as providing stock feed directly, appears to enhance pasture production and quality, probably due to shading and related improved soil moisture status and fertility from litter breakdown. Albizia lebbek III-4 2 Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse – 43. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics., viii + 384 pp. There is also a wide range of insect pests including sap suckers, wood and seed borers (such as Bruchidius spp.) Did you scroll all this way to get facts about albizia wood? Native to India and Southeast Asia. Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. Bolivia Catalogue. Silviculture of Indian trees, 22. The medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden., Martinez M, Leon de Pinto G, Alvarez S, Gonzalez de Troconis N, Ocando E, Rivas C, 1995. It is also found on the banks of streams on riverine sites (Beard, 1979), and on stabilized dunes or low lateritic ledges above the beach (Brock, 1988). Use of fodder trees and shrubs. In Brazil, the herbicide triclopyr has been recommended to control areas invaded by A. lebbeck (I3N-Brasil, 2016). by Witt A, Luke Q]. February 2007. Schriftenreihe der GTZ, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, German Federal Republic, Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG, 1962. Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plant Particulars and Photographs. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. An extensive literature on the trialling of A. lebbeck for land reclamation after mining and revegetation of fly-ash dumps indicates that there are alternative, better adapted species available for this purpose.Keating and Bolza (1982) describe the characteristics and uses of siris (A. lebbeck) wood. Early nitrogen fixation and utilization in Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala, and Gliricidia sepium using nitrogen (N) labelling. Naturalized populations of A. lebbeck can be found in Africa, tropical South America, southern USA (California, Florida and Texas), the Caribbean and on some islands in the Indian and Pacific Ocean (Orwa et al., 2009; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; ILDIS, 2016; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). Common fuelwood crops. Agronomy and forage quality of Albizia lebbek in the semi-arid tropics. [Many refs. perniciosum. Branches can fall easily with no warning, even from healthy trees. Rehabilitation of open-cast coal mines in Singrauli region of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. In cultivation, A. lebbeck can be established by direct sowing, using container-grown stock or as bare-rooted seedlings or stump plants (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992; Gupta, 1993; MacDicken, 1994). July 2009. 4. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. FAO of the United Nations and Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, 110-111, Macdonald IAW, Reaser JK, Bright C, Neville LE, Howard GW, Murphy SJ, Preston G, 2003. in India (Harsh, 1993). Range-Management-and-Agroforestry, 15(2):199-202; 10 ref, Stevens PF, 2012. Midway Mall Town, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Henderson L, 2001. The fruit is a pod 15–30 cm long and 2.5-5.0 cm broad, containing six to twelve seeds.[3]. It is also used a source of forage and fodder in agroforestry and silvopastoral systems. Provenances from northwestern and central India, in general, were superior to those from south India. In: Tropical Tree Seed Manual [ed. The genus is placed within the subfamily Mimosoideae, which comprises 82 genera and about 3335 species of shrubs and trees (rarely herbs) in which nitrogen fixing is common (Stevens, 2012). Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 17, 67-88. In its Australian range, A. lebbeck is a dominant species in semi-evergreen vine forests (monsoon forest) in areas with a mean annual rainfall of 1300-1500 mm and a very dry winter but is known to naturalize in coastal forests, savanna woodlands and riparian areas (Beadle, 1981; Hocking, 1993; Lowry et al., 1994; Parrotta, 2010; Ecocrop, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016; Purdue University, 2017). However, it is also widely cultivated in other parts of Australia and has recently become naturalised in other regions. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas, Florida, USA: University of Florida. Forest pathology: principles and practice in forestry., Bolivia Catalogue, 2016. Trees for drylands. Silvae Genetica, 45(1):31-33; 13 ref, Tomar OS, Yadav JSP, 1982. Effect of irrigation with saline and sodic waters on the growth of Albizia lebbeck and soil properties. July 2009. The sapwood is pale yellow and distinct and the heartwood dark walnut streaked with darker bands. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society. A taxonomic study of Albizia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae: Ingeae) in Mexico and Central America Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 65: 255-305. Lowry, J.B.; Prinsen, J.H. The bark, which contains 7-11% tannin, as well as saponin (Pal et al., 1995), is used locally in India for tanning and when dried and pounded can be used for soap (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Intact pods can be carried hundreds of metres,             Subphylum: Angiospermae,                 Class: Dicotyledonae,                     Order: Fabales,                         Family: Fabaceae,                             Subfamily: Mimosoideae,                                 Genus: Albizia,                                     Species: Albizia lebbeck, Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit. It can be planted in exposed coastal situations and as quick-growing shelter for less hardy plants (Hearne, 1975). In: Ram Parkash, ed., Advances in Forestry in India, Vol. It reproduces by seed or vegetatively by cuttings or coppicing. Growth and biomass production of Albizia lebbeck in relation to nitrogen and phosphorus application. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 19(5-6):382-384, Miah SAR, Rao R, 1996. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Lowry et al. Root rots, cankers, heart rots, spot fungi and rusts (e.g. Flora of Panama (WFO), Tropicos website. FAO/FORPEST 64-5, 1966. pp. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 9: 92; 4 ref, Lowry JB, Prinsen JH, Burrows DM, 1994. It stops growing early in the dry season, loses its leaves in the middle of the dry season some 2 to 3 months later, remains leafless for 1 to 2 months, with new growth appearing towards the end of the dry season. Usually multi-stemmed, it can be grown as a single straight stem. by Vozzo JA]. Damping off of seedlings in nurseries by Rhizoctonia solani [Thanatephorus cucumeris] has been recorded in India (Mehrotra, 1989) and Sri Lanka (Bandara, 1987) and by Fusarium spp. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center., Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2016. Indian Journal of Forestry, 18(1):95-96; 2 ref, Misra KK, Saini BC, Jaiswal HR, 1992. ; [18 pp. (1994) to suggest three management options for incorporating A. lebbeck in pastoral systems: (1) grow trees intensively in rows and woodlots, as a protein supplement, for feeding weaners or as a drought reserve, lopping annually or as necessary, (2) establish trees at low density in open woodland with no management once established, and (3) develop agroforestry regimes in which animal production benefits are combined with wood production. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Online database. Trees usually attain a maximum height of up to 18 m (Parrotta, 1988). It is multi-stemmed when grown in the open but capable of producing a single straight stem when grown in plantations. 1994, Seed dispersal in strong winds. Vol IV. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Rhizoctonia leaf web blight of Albizia lebbek, a destructive disease in forest nurseries in India. Feed value of multipurpose fodder trees and shrubs in West Africa: edible forage production and nutritive value of Millettia thonningii and Albizia lebbeck. Canberra, Australia: Australian Biological Resources Study, Department of the Environment and Energy., Cronk QCB, Fuller JL, 1995. In India, flowering occurs mainly from March to May, and fruits grow to their full size from August to October (Troup and Joshi, 1983). In the dry, deciduous scrub forests of southern India, it is often found with Santalum album, other Albizia species, and members of the genera Acacia, Ziziphus, Cassia and Terminalia.

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